## Tuesday, 12 November 2013

### Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Part II

Assalamualaikum and hello ^_^. As you can see in my last entry, I talked about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and today I am going to discuss more about the diet and physical activity that suitable with patients that have this disease.

OK, last time I stop at protein intake and today I'm going to continue on alcohol intake.

4. Alcohol Intake
• I understand that this topic can be a little bit sensitive as not all of us drink alcohol but just take this extra knowledge and don't worry, it will not bring any harm  :)
• A person with diabetes can still enjoy alcohol but they have to limit it to 2 drinks for men, 1 drinks for women per day (1 drink = 15g alcohol)
• 1 drink = 360 ml beer, 150 ml wine, 45 ml hard liquor
• Alcohol intake should be accompanied with meals to prevent hypoglycemia especially patient that is on insulin. This is because alcohol can blocks gluconeogenesis (sugar making) in the body and increase effect of insulin.

5. Weight Control
•  Patients that are overweight or obese are advised to lose weight.
•  The process does not have to be very drastic, it should be done slowly to ensure the patient can maintain the achieved-weight for long time.
• The patient should try to lose 5-10% of initial body weight in first 6 months
• This can be achieved with proper diet and sufficient physical activity.
• Patients are advised to do at least 150 minutes of exercise per week. It doesn't have to be continues, the patient can divide it 30 minutes a day. The 30 minutes/day can also be divided to 10 minutes per session. Eg.: walking and cycling.
• They are also advisable to do restraining-exercise at least twice a week such as the uses of gym balls or dumbbells.
• Patients that have complication in their body should ask the dietitian in any hospital or local health center about the suitable physical activity that can be done.

6. Self-monitored Blood Glucose
• The blood glucose result and diet recall are the most important indicator for dietitian to evaluate patient's performance.
• Glucose test should be done 3-8 times/day by patient to monitor the adequacy of insulin doses, food intake and physical activity.

Alright, all of this is only brief explanation about the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus that I can share. I hope this can give all of you some basic understanding in   Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus's diet..
Until next time, BYEEEEE!!!!!!

## Monday, 11 November 2013

### Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Assalamualaikum,
Today I am going to talk about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The reason why I focus on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is because this disease is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and it keeps growing. Now I am third year student in Dietetic course and now I am doing clinical attachment and almost everyday I will see patient with T2DM. This shows that disease is actually common thing in Malaysia and that is worrisome.

Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus needs to take care of their diet. I am going to explain about the diet that suitable for T2DM that can help control their blood glucose level.

This is the diagnosis for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1. Carbohydrate recommendation.
•  Example: Rice, mee hoon, kway teow, thosai, bread, biscuit and etc.

• Total CHO intake can be monitored by using grams, exchange list, household or hand meaure as long it suitable with individual.
• A minimum of 130g/day is usually required by patient to ensure adequate intake fiber, vitamin and mineral.
• Total CHO percentage is usually 45-60% of total energy but it depends on several factors such as weight, cultural preference and individual lifestyle. Patient can ask dietitian in hospital or local health center to help in estimate total CHO percentage needed.
•  For sucrose intake or in simple words sugar, patient may take between 10-20 % from total energy. Patient can ask dietitian in hospital or local health center to help in estimate total sugar percentage needed
• The amount of sugar intake needs to be monitored because it can lead to weight gain and usually high sugary foods are low in nutrient content.
2.  Dietary fiber
• Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus are advised to take fiber at least 20-30 g/day
• Foods with high fiber content can help in reducing total cholesterol and improve glycemix control.
• Example: whole grain cereal, vegetables, fruits, legumes, beans, nuts, lentils and seeds.

3. Protein intake
• Patient that have Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus but have normal renal function are advised to take protein about 15-20% of total energy.
• Patient that have problem with renal function may have to restrict protein intake to 0.8-1.0 g/kg body weight/day.
• It is advisable to take lean sources such as lean meat, fish, chicken/poultry without skin and soy protein.

Okay, that's all for today. I will continue about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus diet in my next entry. Bye ^_^

## Sunday, 3 November 2013

### BODY MASS INDEX

Hello, it's me again..very sorry about the delay. Ok..like you guys can see on my post title, today I'm going to talk about Body Mass Index.

BMI is a measure of human body based on height and weight. The formula is BMI
$= \frac{\text{mass}(\text{kg})}{\left(\text{height}(\text{m})\right)^2}$
After, you have done the calculation, you can check what category your body is. Here is a table that shows the categories for BMI: