## Thursday, 5 December 2013

### Diet For Chronic Kidney Disease

Hello guys, long time no see..I'm very sorry for the long hiatus..

Today i'am gonna to talk about the suitable diet for patient with chronic kidney disease.

• Food with moderate amount of protein to avoid the risk of dehydration, hypernatremia and azotemia
1. Fruit and Vegetables

2. Good Fat
• Food with high protein content such as animal product can be taken but in less or moderate amount.

• Patient with chronic kidney disease should monitor fluid intake as they are not able to tolerate the usual flush volumes.

## Tuesday, 12 November 2013

### Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Part II

Assalamualaikum and hello ^_^. As you can see in my last entry, I talked about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and today I am going to discuss more about the diet and physical activity that suitable with patients that have this disease.

OK, last time I stop at protein intake and today I'm going to continue on alcohol intake.

4. Alcohol Intake
• I understand that this topic can be a little bit sensitive as not all of us drink alcohol but just take this extra knowledge and don't worry, it will not bring any harm  :)
• A person with diabetes can still enjoy alcohol but they have to limit it to 2 drinks for men, 1 drinks for women per day (1 drink = 15g alcohol)
• 1 drink = 360 ml beer, 150 ml wine, 45 ml hard liquor
• Alcohol intake should be accompanied with meals to prevent hypoglycemia especially patient that is on insulin. This is because alcohol can blocks gluconeogenesis (sugar making) in the body and increase effect of insulin.

5. Weight Control
•  Patients that are overweight or obese are advised to lose weight.
•  The process does not have to be very drastic, it should be done slowly to ensure the patient can maintain the achieved-weight for long time.
• The patient should try to lose 5-10% of initial body weight in first 6 months
• This can be achieved with proper diet and sufficient physical activity.
• Patients are advised to do at least 150 minutes of exercise per week. It doesn't have to be continues, the patient can divide it 30 minutes a day. The 30 minutes/day can also be divided to 10 minutes per session. Eg.: walking and cycling.
• They are also advisable to do restraining-exercise at least twice a week such as the uses of gym balls or dumbbells.
• Patients that have complication in their body should ask the dietitian in any hospital or local health center about the suitable physical activity that can be done.

6. Self-monitored Blood Glucose
• The blood glucose result and diet recall are the most important indicator for dietitian to evaluate patient's performance.
• Glucose test should be done 3-8 times/day by patient to monitor the adequacy of insulin doses, food intake and physical activity.

Alright, all of this is only brief explanation about the Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus that I can share. I hope this can give all of you some basic understanding in   Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus's diet..
Until next time, BYEEEEE!!!!!!

## Monday, 11 November 2013

### Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Assalamualaikum,
Today I am going to talk about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The reason why I focus on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is because this disease is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and it keeps growing. Now I am third year student in Dietetic course and now I am doing clinical attachment and almost everyday I will see patient with T2DM. This shows that disease is actually common thing in Malaysia and that is worrisome.

Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus needs to take care of their diet. I am going to explain about the diet that suitable for T2DM that can help control their blood glucose level.

This is the diagnosis for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1. Carbohydrate recommendation.
•  Example: Rice, mee hoon, kway teow, thosai, bread, biscuit and etc.

• Total CHO intake can be monitored by using grams, exchange list, household or hand meaure as long it suitable with individual.
• A minimum of 130g/day is usually required by patient to ensure adequate intake fiber, vitamin and mineral.
• Total CHO percentage is usually 45-60% of total energy but it depends on several factors such as weight, cultural preference and individual lifestyle. Patient can ask dietitian in hospital or local health center to help in estimate total CHO percentage needed.
•  For sucrose intake or in simple words sugar, patient may take between 10-20 % from total energy. Patient can ask dietitian in hospital or local health center to help in estimate total sugar percentage needed
• The amount of sugar intake needs to be monitored because it can lead to weight gain and usually high sugary foods are low in nutrient content.
2.  Dietary fiber
• Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus are advised to take fiber at least 20-30 g/day
• Foods with high fiber content can help in reducing total cholesterol and improve glycemix control.
• Example: whole grain cereal, vegetables, fruits, legumes, beans, nuts, lentils and seeds.

3. Protein intake
• Patient that have Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus but have normal renal function are advised to take protein about 15-20% of total energy.
• Patient that have problem with renal function may have to restrict protein intake to 0.8-1.0 g/kg body weight/day.
• It is advisable to take lean sources such as lean meat, fish, chicken/poultry without skin and soy protein.

Okay, that's all for today. I will continue about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus diet in my next entry. Bye ^_^

## Sunday, 3 November 2013

### BODY MASS INDEX

Hello, it's me again..very sorry about the delay. Ok..like you guys can see on my post title, today I'm going to talk about Body Mass Index.

BMI is a measure of human body based on height and weight. The formula is BMI
$= \frac{\text{mass}(\text{kg})}{\left(\text{height}(\text{m})\right)^2}$
After, you have done the calculation, you can check what category your body is. Here is a table that shows the categories for BMI:

## Wednesday, 23 October 2013

### Neutropenic Diet

Hello..it's me again..i have gone missing for a while...need to take care of some business..plus I don't have any idea what to post in my blog..but anyway i'm here right now and as you can see on my title for this post, i am going to talk about NEUTROPENIC DIET

So basically, my beloved lecturer (~_~) ask us to find about Neutropenic diet and i'm like "okay, another word from outer space" but it's common in Health Science's field. Everyday you will encounter with new word that sometimes it can make your tongue go twisted just to pronounce it. All you have to do is just set your mind to think that all of that is very important and not to mention, veeerrryyyyy useful in the future. Just think that you about to embark a journey to a whole new world. So guys, buckle up as you are about to start a journey in Neutropenic World..

Neutropenic diet is for the people who have weak immune system to fight against infection. This diet is specialized for cancer patient. Cancer patient who receives chemotherapy treatment have high risk of infection from bacteria or fungus that can be found in foods. This can be explained by two reasons. First, white blood cells that functioning to fight against food poisoning bacteria is very low in cancer patient due to chemotherapy treatment. This condition is known as neutropenia. Second, chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment can cause damage to gut lining. This will increase the risk of bacterial infection as gut lining acts as barrier between bacteria and bloodstream. There is various level of restriction in neutropenic diet. Patient usually will follow doctor’s advice that based on number of white blood cell in the body, known as neutrophil count.

Patients has to avoid soft ripened cheese, instead they have to buy processed cheese such as Kraft. Other than that, they are forbidden to eat raw or lightly cooked shellfish as they may contain high amount of bacteria. They should consume well cooked shellfish. Moreover, they cannot consume raw or undercooked meat or poultry. They should make sure that the meat or poultry that they about to consume is well cooked. Patients should also avoid from eating raw or undercooked egg such as homemade mayonnaise, homemade ice cream or meringue. If they want to eat egg, make sure the egg is well cooked such as hard boiled egg. If patient wish to eat yoghurt, make sure the yoghurt does not contain any probiotic. As for dairy products, all unpasteurized dairy products such as milk sold on local farm is forbidden. Choose only pasteurized dairy products such as UHT milk.

In neutropenic diet, the raw vegetables are not allowed. The vegetables have to be well cooked. As for fruits, make sure their skin is peeled before patient consumes them. Prevent patients from consuming any non-drinking water, bottled mineral, water from wells, water from cooler or water fountain. Provide them filtered and sterilized water. Honey contains many good substances for the body. Patients are allowed to consume honey but only if the honey is already pasteurized or heat-treated honey. They are not allowed to eat “farm fresh” honey or honey comb.
Loss of appetite is common among cancer patients due to all the treatment that they received especially chemotherapy. They can try to eat nourishing snacks that can help to improve their appetite. There are many types of nourishing snacks that can be found in the market. If the patient prefers savoury taste, he or she can consume roasted nuts, toasted muffin, breakfast cereal, rice porridge with cooked meat added or sandwiches. As for sweet snacks, patients can consume sweet biscuits, chocolate bar, puddings or fruitcakes. If the patient have trouble to swallow her or his foods, serve them liquid foods such as soups. They are many kind of soups that available in the market such as condensed or creamed. They cannot drink any caffeinated drinks. Serve them milky drinks such as ovaltine, cocoa, or Horlicks.

Ok, i think that's about it. This is just a summary about Neutropenic Diet. There are more further explanations about it that can be found in the internet. I just hope that you guys can understand the basic about Neutropenic diet ^_^..Okay, until next time..See you again..

## Sunday, 13 October 2013

### Hello.....

Helloooo!!!!....this is my 1st entry for my blog. Honestly, I still don't have any idea what I want to write on my blog. I have a clear vision about my blog which is to teach and provide knowledges about health to others but still I really don't know where to begin. So for my first entry, I'm just going to tell a little bit about myself...
...just a little...

Ok..my name is 4EVER NADA. I am 21 years old and I'm currently studying in Nutrition and Dietitian Programme in Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam. Although my main language is Malay and i rarely use English in my daily conversation plus I'm not really good at it but the main reason why I choose English to write my blog entry because I wish this blog can be read by the people all around the world. So, please forgive me if there is any error in my writing :p
I think that's all about me. I will  see you again on my next entry..Byeeeeee and good night..

p/s: Any correction abut my English or the facts about health that I will give is welcome anytime :p