Monday, 11 November 2013

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Today I am going to talk about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. The reason why I focus on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is because this disease is one of the leading cause of death in Malaysia and it keeps growing. Now I am third year student in Dietetic course and now I am doing clinical attachment and almost everyday I will see patient with T2DM. This shows that disease is actually common thing in Malaysia and that is worrisome.

Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus needs to take care of their diet. I am going to explain about the diet that suitable for T2DM that can help control their blood glucose level.

This is the diagnosis for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1. Carbohydrate recommendation.
  •  Example: Rice, mee hoon, kway teow, thosai, bread, biscuit and etc.
  • Total CHO intake can be monitored by using grams, exchange list, household or hand meaure as long it suitable with individual.
  • A minimum of 130g/day is usually required by patient to ensure adequate intake fiber, vitamin and mineral.
  • Total CHO percentage is usually 45-60% of total energy but it depends on several factors such as weight, cultural preference and individual lifestyle. Patient can ask dietitian in hospital or local health center to help in estimate total CHO percentage needed.
  •  For sucrose intake or in simple words sugar, patient may take between 10-20 % from total energy. Patient can ask dietitian in hospital or local health center to help in estimate total sugar percentage needed
  • The amount of sugar intake needs to be monitored because it can lead to weight gain and usually high sugary foods are low in nutrient content.
2.  Dietary fiber
  • Patient with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus are advised to take fiber at least 20-30 g/day
  • Foods with high fiber content can help in reducing total cholesterol and improve glycemix control.
  • Example: whole grain cereal, vegetables, fruits, legumes, beans, nuts, lentils and seeds.

 3. Protein intake
  • Patient that have Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus but have normal renal function are advised to take protein about 15-20% of total energy.
  • Patient that have problem with renal function may have to restrict protein intake to 0.8-1.0 g/kg body weight/day.
  • It is advisable to take lean sources such as lean meat, fish, chicken/poultry without skin and soy protein.

 Okay, that's all for today. I will continue about Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus diet in my next entry. Bye ^_^

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